Fascinating wonders of Antarctica

Antarctica is one of the most extreme environments on Earth. Although this makes exploring the region difficult, ice contains many secrets that could help understand climates on other planets. Scientists are focusing mainly on researching how certain life forms, no matter how small, are able to survive and even thrive in such a hostile, barren and beautiful place.
Blood cascades
Bloody Falls of rust appears on the Taylor Glacier and flow into Lake Bonney, located in a dry valley. The waterfall is five stories long and gets its creepy blood tonality from the lake trapped from the flowing. The lake is very high salinity and rich in iron. The waterfall flows from a crack in the glacier and has an ecosystem hidden under the thick layers of ice. Scientists believe that the ancient communities of microbes isolated from the outside world are developing in this body of water, which contains little heat, no light and no oxygen. The falls were first discovered in 1911 by a geologist and have been a source of fascination for scholars ever since. The theory is that the lake formed when the Taylor glacier advanced over a large saltwater pool that is almost five million years old. Scientists are excited about the prospect of learning how life on other planets could behave based on ecosystem research in the fall. Since Mars has a climate similar to the dry valleys of Antarctica, this site is the ideal place to work on the release of some of the greatest mysteries of the universe.
Mount Erebus
Mount Erebus is the most active volcano in the south of the world on Ross Island, Antarctica. The volcano is 3,800 meters (12,400 feet) high and very active. Mount Erebus is one of the few volcanoes on earth with an active lava lake, and this is one more distant. The location of the volcano and the weather does not allow scientists to visit Erebus many times, so they make most of the satellite images of the eruption. However, in 2013, a small team of scientists has climbed Erebus and took a quick look inside the boiler. To their surprise, they saw a small movement of organisms living in the intense heat of the volcano! The volcano began to form exist about 1.3 million years ago. Snow, rocks and glaciers cover the flanks of the mountain, and steam can usually be seen rising from the top. The mountain also contains several ice caves containing thousands of microscopic organisms. Scientists believe that some of the lesser known forms and the strange world of bacteria thrive on the soil of these caves. The caves are close to the surface, but covered by a thin layer of ice. This makes climbing the mountain a risky business. Ice crystals also form in caves from the heat of the volcano.
The fossils
In November 2016, the previous wings fossils of a new species of beetle have been found near the Transantarctic mountains in the Beardmore glacier. The beetle was named the Antarctic tundra ball beetle and lived about 14 to 20 million years ago, when Antarctica was warmer than the present. Other types of fossils have been found on the frozen continent before and were a great source of mystery and debate among scientists. There are more than 30 years, tiny unicellular diatoms called fossils were found in the peaks of the Transantarctic mountains. For decades, scientists have not been able to definitively explain its presence. According to new research, however, strong changing winds and glaciers are probably responsible for the elevated position of fossils. The results also suggest that ice sheets are much less stable than previously thought.

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